Saturday, March 14, 2020
What Are the Score Choice Policies at Ivy Leagues SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Many students assume colleges will see every score they've earned on the SAT and ACT when they apply. However, while some top-tier schools do require your full testing histories, many don't. Some even allow score choice for the SAT, which allows you to send only the scores you want them to see, or they allow you to pick your best ACT test date. If you're aiming for a top-tier school like an Ivy League, Stanford, or MIT, read this guide to learn how they evaluate standardized tests to help you best prepare. What's in This Guide We're dividing this list of prestigious schools into two categories: colleges that require you to send all scores, and colleges that do not. We are including quotations from their admissions websites about not just their policies on multiple scores, but how they evaluate multiple test scores in general. We will also link to each school's admissions website so you can read more in-depth about their policies. We will also highlight colleges that specifically allow for College Board's Score Choice (or the ACT's similar option). Plus, we will include application tips for the two categories to help you create a smart test-taking strategy. Colleges in Guide Brown University Columbia University Cornell University Dartmouth College Duke University Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Princeton University Stanford University University of California System University of Chicago University of Pennsylvania Vanderbilt University Yale University Colleges That Require You to Send All Scores As companies that make standardized tests have made it easier to pick and choose which scores you want to send to colleges, fewer schools have required you to send all your test scores. Currently, only one of the Ivy Leagues (Yale) does. In these cases, the colleges require you to send your full testing history (sometimes called "testing record"), either for the ACT or SAT. In the past, some colleges have even required your testing history from both tests. Even though colleges often say they will "focus" on the highest score, colleges that require all scores will take each score they receive into consideration. Yale University "Applicants who have taken the SAT or ACT exam multiple times should report all scores from whichever test they choose to report. Applicants who choose to report scores from both the SAT and ACT should report all scores received on both tests....When assessing SAT results, admissions officers will focus on the highest individual section scores from all test dates. For example, if an applicant took the SAT twice, the highest Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math scores will be considered individually. When assessing ACT results, admissions officers focus on the highest ACT Composite from all test dates while also considering individual ACT subscores." If you take both the SAT or ACT, you can choose which test to send. But whichever test you pick, you have to send all of your scores. They will also superscore the results of whichever exam you decide to submit; however, remember that they will see all your scores, even if "officially" they only use the highest score from each section. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today! Strategy for "All Scores" Schools While we never recommend taking the ACT or SAT until you are confident you will get your target score- either for the first time or on a retake- you need to be especially careful about retakes if any of the above schools are top choices for you. In particular, do not take the ACT or SAT once "for practice" before studying for a higher score on a retake. These colleges will see that lower "practice score" and take it into consideration. Instead, make full-length, strictly-timed practice tests an important part of your study regimen, so you have a more confident idea of what your score will turn out to be before you take the ACT/SAT for the first time. Also, be careful about retaking the SAT/ACT with the goal of improving one of the sections. For example, if you got a low Critical Reading score the first time around on the SAT, don't exclusively study for CR before your retake. If your other scores (Math and Writing) go down by a lot, that could make for a lower composite score the second time, which doesn't look great. You should also be careful of retaking the SAT or ACT more than three times, since again, they will see every score date and it won't look good if your scores don't improve markedly. Some final bits of advice: if you're taking the SAT, take the PSAT during your sophomore year so you can get real, scored SAT practice before you take the SAT. And if you're taking the ACT, keep in mind you have the option of deleting records from a particular test date. You can't send scores that no longer exist! Colleges That Don't Require All Scores Colleges that don't require all scores to be sent often have admission policies in place in which they only consider the highest scores, either from a single test date or by superscoring. This is why they don't require all scores- because they won't consider the lowest ones anyway. Many of these colleges also accept College Board's Score Choice feature, which allows you to pick and choose which scores to send. (Read more about Score Choice here.) ACT doesn't have Score Choice, but it does allow you to pick which test date to send. You can put your best scores forward at "score choice" schools. By the way, "superscoring" means combining the best section results from different test dates to create your highest possible composite score. Many of the schools on this list superscore for the SAT, however, for the ACT, it's more common to just look at the highest composite score. Brown University "We accept Score Choice. We will super score within both current and redesigned SAT, but will not super score using results from both versions of the test. For the ACT, we consider the highest scores submitted for each section; however, we do not calculate a super scored ACT Composite score." If you take the SAT more than once, Brown will automatically consider your highest section scores (provided all scores are from either the old or the redesigned SAT), but you may also use Score Choice to decide which scores to submit. For the ACT, they will focus on the highest score for each section, but won't calculate a "superscored" composite. You can choose your best ACT test date(s) to send with that in mind. Columbia University "Applicants may select the Score Choice option for the SAT or choose to submit specific ACT composite scores....When evaluating applicants, we consider only the highest testing results reported from individual sections of the SAT or the highest composite score on the ACT." Columbia's policy is very similar to Brown's. You can use Score Choice for the SAT or pick your best ACT composite to submit. Cornell University "Note that Cornell participates in the College Board Score Choice program. For the SAT, Cornell considers the highest section scores across test dates. For the ACT, Cornell considers the highest composite score across all ACT test dates. As a reminder, ACT does not create new records by combining scores from different test dates." Cornell doesn't require you to send all scores, and it'll combine section scores of different SAT exam dates, but only composite scores from different ACT test dates, not section scores. Dartmouth College "Dartmouth does permit the use of Score Choice....We consider the highest component scores from the SAT, even if these results are from different dates. For the ACT, the committee considers the highest composite score and does not combine sub-scores from multiple test dates. We don't recommend excessive testing." Like fellow Ivies Brown and Columbia, they will look at the highest SAT sections from different dates but only the highest ACT composite. Duke University "Students who have taken multiple tests may choose which scores to send to Duke. For students who elect to send multiple test scores Duke will use whichever score is highest." For Duke, you have total control over what scores to send! And if you do send multiple scores, they will use whichever score is best. This is actually a recent change to their policy- they used to require all scores. Harvard College "You are free to use the College Board's Score Choice option or the similar option offered by ACT when applying to Harvard." Harvard doesn't say they automatically focus on the highest scores if they get more than one SAT score or ACT score. However, they do say "we do not admit by the numbers" and "we take into account your educational background when reviewing scores." This is part of holistic application review, trying to take into account the whole applicant. Still, Harvard is one of the most competitive schools in the country, so we suggest putting your best scores forward either with Score Choice or by sending your best ACT test date. MIT "Students are free to use the College Board's Score Choice option and the ACT's option to submit the scores of your choice." MIT does say that they superscore test results, so Score Choice can be a bit redundant. They even superscores across the old and new SAT, which is unusual. They superscore the ACT as well, saying that they "consider the highest score achieved in each section" for both the SAT and ACT. This means if you have taken the ACT more than once, and your best section scores are spread out between test dates, it might be more advantageous to send all your ACT dates so MIT will superscore them. Princeton University "We allow applicants to use the score choice feature of the SAT and accept only the highest composite score of the ACT, but we encourage the submission of all test scores." Like the other Ivies in this section, Princeton is fine with College Board's Score Choice and its ACT equivalent. Stanford University "We recommend that you simply self-report your highest scores in the testing section of the application. You can also have official scores sent to Stanford, but this is not required for us to review your application. If you are offered admission and choose to enroll, official scores that match your self-reported scores will be required. In order for test scores to be considered official, they must be sent directly from the College Board or the ACT." Stanford allows for Score Choice, and it also superscores for both the SAT and the ACT. University of California System "In the College Board's Score Choice module, we encourage you to send all official scores to UC. We will use the highest scores from a single administration. There is no disadvantage to submitting all scores....For the ACT with Writing test, we will focus on the highest combined score from the same test administration...For the SAT with Essay, we will focus on the highest total score from a single test date." They stop short of explicitly requiring all scores, but they make it clear they'd prefer to see all your scores. This means if you're applying to any schools in the UC system (these include Berkeley, UCLA, and UC Davis), you're encouraged to send all your scores, since lower scores won't hurt your admission chances. University of Chicago "If you have chosen to submit SAT or ACT test scores, we recommend you send us all of your test scores. Only your best testing results- your highest sub-scores and the best result of the two testing options, if you've taken both the SAT and ACT- will be considered in the review of your application. Lower test scores submitted will not be used in the review of your application." UChicago doesn't forbid Score Choice, but they do recommend you send all of your scores, since they only look at the highest ones. University of Pennsylvania "Although we permit Score Choice, we do encourage students to submit their entire testing history on both ACT and SAT exams." Much like Dartmouth and Princeton, UPenn allows you to send whichever scores you like, but prefers you send them all. It's also worth noting that they superscore for both the SAT and ACT, so you will often benefit from sending multiple scores. Vanderbilt University "Only your highest [SAT] section scores will be considered as part of the final admissions decision...We will treat ACT scores in the way as what we're describing here with the SAT Reasoning (i.e., considering only the highest composite ACT score in our final admissions decisions). The only difference between the two is that we do not "super-score" the ACT, whereas we do with the SAT Reasoning." So for the SAT, even though Vanderbilt encourages you to send all scores, they don't require it. For the ACT, they're more flexible. Since they will only look at the highest composite score, you can just submit your highest ACT composite. Strategy for Score Choice Schools Unlike the "all scores" schools, you are free to send scores from one test date for the ACT or use score choice to combine scores from multiple dates for the SAT. This means there is less pressure to get a super high composite each time you take the SAT- so if you need to, you could go into a retake aiming for a better math score and not worry too much about Critical Reading and Writing. You also don't need to stress out about only testing two or three times because you won't have to send each test date (though still, if you're studying carefully, you shouldn't have to retake the SAT or ACT more than two or three times). Basically, for the SAT, your goal should be to create the single highest composite you can, and not worry as much about some of your lower scores. However, for the ACT, it's important to note that while some schools (MIT and UChicago) will superscore the ACT, most schools are just looking at the highest overall composite. So you don't have to worry about retaking the ACT, since you only have to send your highest composite to these schools. However, it does mean each time you take the ACT, you need to study all sections to maximize your final composite (the ACT's composite is averaged, so a lower section could drag down your composite). What's Next? So how high should your SAT/ACT scores be for the Ivy League, anyway? See our guide to which scores will get you in- and which ones are too low. We also have a guide to SAT Subject Test scores for the Ivy League. Don't consider these an afterthought! Need help preparing for your retakes? Check out the best SAT and ACT prep websites you should be using. Disappointed with your scores? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Politics and Justice in the US - Research Paper Example The United States of America has long faced the challenge of electing leaders who in a free and democratic manner. The US has one of the highest numbers of elected people in office with over 500,000 people being elected into different electoral roles. As a result, a lot of elections are conducted almost every now and then in the United States. The process of electioneering and its effect relation to democracy is that it does not assist in opening up democratic space in the United States. This is because the American democratic system is dogged by challenges such as parochialism, incumbency and fragmentation of decisions. The sheer number of electoral positions in the United States means that its citizens are constantly involved in elections which are not healthy for democracy (Dye, 2011). Moreover, the elected officials in the United States stay long in office and thus this provides a challenge brought about by incumbency. Incumbency does little in reforming the ideas and policies pr actised in the United States of America (Herbst, 2011). Incumbency does not reflect the wishes and the changing dynamics of the US population. Incumbency helps in stifling democracy in many areas of the United States of America and this is witnessed by Senators or Governors who occupy their offices for long periods of time. Democracy requires the proper functioning of organs of the government and this requires good decision making. ... Democracy requires the proper functioning of organs of the government and this requires good decision making. The Senate is one of the important organs of government since it is involved in making laws. However, due to constant wrangling and taking of different positions by law makers. We have a situation whereby ideals and policies are sacrificed since every party or group in the house of Senate take different positions (Dye, 2011). This is because Incumbency might in some situations lead to lack of party identity and formation of caucuses that differ from their own party. The high rate of incumbency has dealt a great deal of damage to democracy since people find to difficult to identify with their representatives. As a result, these elected leaders will take advantage of this situation to serve self interests. The fragmentation of decisions is detrimental to the process of law making (Reynolds, 2007). Since Senate house committees run the house and the process of law making. These committees take on issues on a local basis which is outside their mandate. As a result, the Senate has been reduced to a body that serves the interests of few individuals. For example, some senators might have been influenced by certain lobby groups to pass or rejects some bills beneficial to certain individuals or companies (Sinha, 2007). However, this is not the greatest hurdle facing American democracy since the biggest problem facing Americans is representation. Leaders elected in America have participated in democratic election albeit with difficult challenges. These challenges have undermined democracy since they are fundamental in the creation of equal opportunities for everybody as democracy
Monday, February 10, 2020
Argument in favor of Holistic Therapy for Lung Cancer Patients - Essay Example The holistic therapy focuses on five aspects of life that contribute to personsÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of well being, namely physical, social, spiritual, emotional, and intellectual (St. John, 2009). To have a better understanding of the benefits and advantages of CAM over conventional medicines (specifically chemotherapy), three arguments will be created to support Holistic Therapy. Chemotherapy is a method of treatment wherein anticancer drugs are administered to the bloodstream usually via IV infusion, with some that can be taken by mouth. The treatment not only affects rapidly multiplying cancer cells but also has adverse effects with healthy multiplying cells (Rothenflue, 2010). Focusing on the chemotherapy for lung cancer, the treatment has inherent side effects that can cause temporary as well as permanent damage to the patient. This side effect includes the reduction of healthy blood cells that lead to vulnerability to infections, bruises and bleeding, and the constant feeling of weakness and fatigue. It may also permanently damage the cells in hair roots; even if hair grows back after treatment, the color and texture would be different. The anticancer drug can also harm the cells in the digestive tract that leads to loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, or mouth and lip sores. Side effects become even worse when radiation therapy is taken at the same period (Rothenflue, 2010). For the first argument, it is evident that conventional medicines are detrimental to the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. The invasive nature of chemotherapy makes holistic therapy more appealing to cancer patients, with current studies indicating that increasing number of cancer patients have undergone at least one alternative treatment. The most common CAM treatment is the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, which is intended to strengthen the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ immune system and to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Differences Between an Associate Degree Nurse and Bachelor Degree Nurse Essay Throughout history, a nurse has been defined as a person caring for the sick(Merriam-Webster, Inc. , 2004, p. 853). At the completion of school, whether from an Associate Degree in Applied Science or a Bachelor of Science Degree, all candidates must pass the national licensure exam. This enables the new graduate nurse to practice as a registered nurse. This new R. N. graduate is permitted to work in health care facilities in entry level positions. Both begin their career similarly with an extended orientation period being mentored by a seasoned colleague. Orientation is a probation period which grants the new employee time to become acclimated to the new facilities policies and procedures, as well as time for the facility to evaluate the new employees progress. Close supervision is required, as well as hands-on-hours, to order for the graduate nurse to gain confidence in the new work environment. (Goulette, 2010, p. 2) Is there a difference between the nurse with an associates degree and the nurse with a bachelor degree since the RN licensure test is the identical and both begin their employment with an extended orientation, as well as tight supervision? One difference is the amount of education. ADN programs, offered by junior or community colleges, can be completed in two to three years. BSN programs, college or university offered, take four years to complete. Time is not the only difference in their schooling. The BSN program places emphasis on general education requirements in the first two years. It is the latter two years where nursing is the center of attention. The criteria needed for the baccalaureate program includes liberal arts education, patient safety, quality of care, research based practice, health care funding, collaborative care, and preventive medicine in communities. (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2008, p. 3) The ADN or technical programs essentially delete some of the generalized educational courses and devote the attention exclusively on nursing which correlates to more hands on experience. This focus is adapted to primarily prepare the ADN student for more day to day nursing activities. In 1952, Mildred Montag, in response to the nursing shortage, designed a program to counter the college level nursing programs. An associate degree was the end result. (Haase, 2006, p.1) To answer the question posed: Is the nursing education level a contributing issue in the deliverance of quality care and patient safety? The American Association of Colleges of Nursing believes that baccalaureate prepared nurses like other health care providers, practice at a higher level. Nurses processing a Bachelors Degree are molded to adapt to the changing health care environment and its demands. This can be accomplished by leadership development, as well as critical thinking emphasizing health promotion and disease prevention across all environments of care. (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2012, p. 1) With the health care system changing so rapidly, it is important that nurses are autonomous. It is necessary, as patient advocates, that we understand the cause and effect of all entities involving our patients. Critical thinking and making the correct judgment call clinically is vital. A patient situation which comes to mind is an 86 year old female, weighing 50kg, Vital Signs: Blood Pressure: 80/50, Heart Rate: 102 (Sinus Tachycardia), Respirations: 20, Saturation: 94% on room air, Hemoglobin: 7. 0 and trending downward over the last three days. The patient complained of chest pain, mid-sternum radiating to jaw, and shortness of breath. This assessment differs from the initial assessment at the beginning of the shift. The nurse informed the physician, placed the patient on oxygen, administered intravenous fluids, removed any nitrate patches, performed an electrocardiogram, suggested that blood be obtained for type and cross to be sent to the lab. The RN remained at the patients bedside, continually monitoring the vital signs and assessing the patients condition. The bedside nurse is exhibiting proficiency in the ability to think critically by making a nursing diagnosis, initiating nursing interventions, and evaluating the results. In the above example of critical thinking, it remains difficult to conclude whether level of education or years of experience are the determining factor in the delivery of patient care. For many years there has been an ongoing debate throughout the nursing community on the importance of knowing that versus knowing how. What seems clear is that vast general, as well as nursing knowledge can only benefit the profession and the patients we serve. ? References American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2008). Essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice. Retrieved from www. aacn. nche. edu American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2012). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. Retrieved from http://www. aacn. nche. edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/impact-of-edcation Creasia, J. L. , Friberg, E. E. (2011). CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS: The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice (5th ed. ). St Louis, MO: Mosby Inc. , an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Goulette, C. (2010). Nursing (Job) Shortage. New Grads are Finding the Job Hunt Tough. Ã¢â¬Å". Retrieved from nursing. advanceweb. com/ Haase, P. (2006). The origins and rise of associate degree nursing education. Retrieved from www. noadn. org Merriam-Webster, Inc. (2004). Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Collegiate Dictionary. In F. C. Mish (Ed. ), Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Collegiate Dictionary (Eleventh Edition, p. 853). Springfield, Massachusettes, USA: John M Morse.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
"We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars." -- Oscar Wilde One of the things that has always puzzled me is human nature, our joys, fears and madness. The very source of the painful cramps of the soul that we call sadness, and the source of the multicolor soft parade that we call happiness. Those feelings have been with us since we saw the light, and are going to be there until the dark and graceful death decides to cover the light of life with her soft wings. They shape everything that makes us, our face, our expression, our spirit, our minds, our future and our past. Those feelings are what drive us to construct and to destroy, make us love something deeply, or with a little bit of poison (like one of the Borgias), make us hate something with passion. The source of happiness and sadness is the missing link that I've always looked for, something so strong that will wake up my senses and show me the mystery that surrounds life. And one day, I found IT. It happened almost a year ago, on a bright spring day. The name of the day was Saturday and the place was Smallville, the city where I was born and raised. I woke up early for a Saturday, around nine a.m. I had breakfast and decided to go downtown for a walk. It was a very beautiful morning, a very beautiful sky, birds singing over the trees, falling in love because of the spring. It was as good as it was going to get in a big town. Of course I wasn't alone; there were hundreds of people walking in those same streets. There were young people, businessmen, many different people, and they were all in a hurry, probably to go to work. I could hear short steps, TAP-TAP-TAP, and I could see many feet walking fast, very fast. Wh... ...all of that but the only thing I could say was, "Yes, brother, do it, dance, dance!!" We smiled together; the people around did too. It was glorious! I don't know if he was an angel, a dream, or a real person, I never will, but that Saturday morning he taught us all a lesson of life, of love, of all the beautiful things that exist in the world. He reminded me of the words of Jesus Christ: "Heaven is not here or there, it's inside of you." It's a state of mind, it's the ecstacy of breathing, is inner peace, is happiness. So you, whoever reads this, smile, hug a friend, go home and kiss your parents, the ones that gave you the great gift of life. Shake hands for no reason--maybe he needs it. Be thankful for everything that you have, for your eyes, for your legs, for your existence. Be joyful and be in peace. And have lots of faith, please.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
There are a plethora of factors that have played a role in influencing world politics in the 20th century. There are the political ideologies, each with their own agenda, conflicting or similar, such as Communism, Fascism, Nationalism, Capitalism and Socialism. There are the various worldwide treaties and agreements, such as the Treaty of Versailles, the League of Nations and the United Nations. Accompanying these are economic agreements, which have an ever-increasing role in world politics, like the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), plus regional trade agreements and customs unions such as the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), the European Union (EU) and the Asia Pacific Economic Community (APEC). Even the two World Wars have had an influence. However, the single force that has had the greatest impact on world politics in the 20th century is Globalisation. Globalisation is a concept with many differing definitions. Bayliss & Smith (1998, p. 15) define globalisation as the Ã¢â¬Ëintensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. Ã¢â¬ Globalisation is a process that entails the movement of capital, goods, services and labour around the world. Globalisation is the massive control of the worldÃ¢â¬ s economy by big business, transcending national boundaries. The underlying factors in all of these definitions are that globalisation involves worldwide integration of both political and economic ideals. Furthermore, Strachan (1998, p. 159) argues that it involves legal and cultural integration also. But does such integration undermine a countryÃ¢â¬ s sovereignty? Can such integration be achieved without violence and conflict? In order to answer these questions, this essay will examine the driving forces behind globalisation, its downfalls and cultural adaptability. Globalisation is an ever-increasing force, even today, as technological advances literally make the world smaller by increasing communication and decreasing travel times, or what can be referred to as the Ã¢â¬ËCommunication RevolutionÃ¢â¬ (Durst, 2000, p. 5). Through massive and rapid improvements in the Information Technology industry; telecommunications, exponential increases in computing power coupled with lower costs and the development of electronic communications and information networks such as the Internet, communications are now possible almost instantaneously between any two points on the globe. The threads of global web are computers, facsimile machines, satellites, monitors and modems-all of them linking designers, engineers, contractors, licensees and dealers worldwide (Sims, 1989, p. 21). Physical distance is now irrelevant. This improvement of communications this century from sailing ship to satellite has contributed directly to the globalisation of the worldÃ¢â¬ s economies and political systems (Rimmer, 2000, p. 3). This has taken place across cultural and physical boundaries, effectively eliminating the capacity of countries to isolate themselves from the rest of the world. A prime example of this is China. For most of its existence, China has kept its doors closed to the rest of the world. No outside influences reached China and it remained unchanged and untouched. In recent times however, China has relaxed its legislation to accommodate foreign investment and trade. Its economy has improved and new information on how to do things more efficiently has been introduced. Borders no longer act as boundaries, especially with respect to the movement of information and finance. Furthermore, borders are becoming increasingly difficult for governments to define and maintain. Regional conflicts are arising everywhere; Sierra Leone, the coup in Fiji, Chechnya, Southern Lebanon and Kosovo. As a result, national governments are being forced to redefine their roles, responsibilities and policy relationships. Thus, globalisation has raised fears that the sovereignty of nation states is being undermined. If sovereignty can be defined as the ability to exercise control without outside interference, then nation states are clearly experiencing diminished sovereignty. Governments have no choice but to recognise and work on the assumption that most issues they are required to deal with are affected by or will affect the international competitiveness of the country. GovernmentÃ¢â¬ s own responses to globalisation or the search for joint solutions to global problems have further effects on sovereignty. Participation in international organisations or the adoption of international agreements puts limits on policy options available to governments (Rimmer, 2000, p. 5). Instead of independence, the world is now pursuing interdependence. Proponents of globalisation argue that unilateral action is not the most effective way to achieve policy goals. In combating environmental problems and international crime, the interests of individual nations can only be protected by collective action. This belief has led to competition between countries on almost all fronts. International investment is encouraged by the activities and mobility of multinational corporations, meaning that most domestic policies such as education and training, taxation, social protection, economic regulation and labour legislation have become international. Even a countryÃ¢â¬ s domestic management policy is a matter of great concern to its trading rivals, because this will ultimately affect a countryÃ¢â¬ s efficiency and competitiveness. Therefore, government policies must increasingly be made more consistent with, or competitive to, those of their trading rivals. Robert Reich is a strong supporter of globalisation, publishing the book entitled Ã¢â¬ËThe Work of NationsÃ¢â¬ . In his book, Reich argues that it is already too late to stop globalisation. His view is supported by Joan Spero, US Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, who states that capital now moves around the world with startling speed. Each day over US $1 trillion is traded in a global foreign exchange market that never closes. (Spero in Strachan, 1998, p. 156). Reich (1991, p. 112) argues that there is no such thing as an American product anymore, giving the example of an ice hockey stick. It is designed in Sweden, financed in Canada, assembled in Cleveland and Denmark out of alloys patented in Delaware and fabricated in Japan and finally distributed in North America and Europe. There are many criticisms of globalisation and Edward Herman (1999, pp. 3-5) classifies his criticisms into a number of categories. Two of those are that, firstly, globalisation is undemocratic and secondly, that it is an assault on labour. In the United States, public opinion polls showed the general public was against NAFTA, even after incessant propaganda, but the mass media supported it and it was passed. In Europe as well, polls have shown persistent majorities opposed to the introduction of the Euro, but a powerful elite supports it, so it moves forward. Globalisation has been a tool serving elite interests. This contradicts the democratic and egalitarian utopia that these regions have been relentlessly encouraging during the 20th century. Globalisation has also steadily weakened democracy because the containment of labour costs and scaling down of the welfare state has required the business minority to establish firm control of the state and remove its capacity to respond to the demands of the majority (Herman, 1999, p. ). One of the main objectives of Transnational Corporations (TNCÃ¢â¬ s) movement abroad, for example Nike manufacturing shoes in Korea, has been to tap cheaper labour sources. Labour is often cheapest, and least prone to cause employer problems, in authoritarian states that curb unions and enter into virtual joint venture arrangements with foreign capital, as in Suharto's Indonesia and PRI's Mexico. Once again, this directly contradicts governmentÃ¢â¬ s agendas. Publicly, politicians speak out in support of foreign aid, human rights and equality, while behind closed doors they are endorsing and funding TNCÃ¢â¬ s operations that exploit cheap labour in third world countries. Another criticism of globalisation is that it is against the very nature of culture. Culture derives its diversity from the differences between different human communities and the distinctions between their respective geographical roots and historical experiences. Globalisation disregards these factors and ultimately aims to treat the entire world population as if they have the same tastes, personalities, customs, traditions and language, through a universal government system. If this were to be so, the world would be a very boring, robotic, monotonous place, devoid of any form of culture. The ramifications of this are wide-ranging. Diversity, variety and room for change are lost and forgotten. Identities of oneself are lost; Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬ is replaced with Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬ . Power is placed into the hands of a select elite few, very oligarchic and undemocratic. If a group of countries were to unite under a common government, equality would not be established. Such a grouping would encompass a wide spectrum of political views, ideologies, religions, races and colours. Instead of one whole body, there would be many minority groups. This transfers an unequal balance of power throughout the states. As the regional conflicts in East Timor, Yugoslavia and Chechnya have shown, conflict shall arise. There are too many barriers to overcome which only leads to frustration and violence. A Commission on Global Governance (COGG) has been established since 1992. In a report published in 1995 entitled Ã¢â¬ËOur Global NeighbourhoodÃ¢â¬ , the commission argued that countries have to accept that in certain fields, sovereignty has to be exercised collectively (Strachan, 1998, p. 155). Once again we have a contradiction in terms; by definition, collective and sovereign are exact opposites that are mutually exclusive. Having stated all the above criticisms, it is important to mention that there is no perfect system in society today that is capable of running a country absolutely efficiently. In fact, conflicting ideologies often correct each other. Communism corrects the equality problem of democracy and democracy corrects the problem of efficiency of communism. By choosing one system or the other, up risal and discontent from the people is inevitable. But is it possible to combine the two? Hitler and Mussolini argued that fascism was the Ã¢â¬Ëthird wayÃ¢â¬ ; an alternative to capitalism and socialism. However, fascism led to the death of more than six million Jewish people, so it justifiable to be wary of anyone offering a third alternative. So globalisation has had the greatest impact on world politics in the 20th century, mainly because of the technological advances in telecommunications and information technology. This is most likely to continue through this the 21st century. The criticisms of globalisation are that it undermines sovereignty, exploits third word countries and is undemocratic. However, there is no feasible alternative at this time and globalisation is already well-spread and embedded in economics and politics. For now, the world will just have to go with it.
Monday, January 6, 2020
It is my belief that in order to be a successful counselor, you must have the skills and ability to listen; especially without judgement. My desire is to work mainly with adolescents and their families inside and outside of schools; I will focus on resolving the identity versus role confusion conflict. I have enjoyed learning about the different techniques and theories of counseling; I am sure each theory is very useful in many ways. I can see myself using different parts of each in my future career as a Mental Health Counselor. However, there are particular theories and techniques that seem to fit into the practice of counseling in the schools more than others. I am particularly drawn to the practicality of Cognitive Behavior Therapy,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦60). He also acknowledges the power of the past and early traumatic childhood experiences in preventing people from living happy, healthy, well-adjusted lives. (Corey, 2013, p. 63) I agree more with EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s psych osocial perspective than FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual stages in that people continue to develop socially throughout their lives and that there are specific events to be resolved in each stage of life (Corey, 2013, p. 63). As each client is different, I will apply the concepts accordingly to each individual. I believe Adolescents are in their genital stage and they at this point in their lives are going through a lot of changes, not only within their social circle, but in their family circle as well. During this stage, they are testing limits, breaking dependent ties and trying to establish an identity. My clients are focused on finding their identity, figuring out their life goals, and lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s meanings. But instead of having my clients lie on a couch and tell me all about their dreams, goals, and life experiences, I would use AdlerÃ¢â¬â¢s life style assessment to learn about their family background and early childhood experiences which may have played an important role in their lives. Adlerian Therapy I would incorporate Adlerian Therapy into my practice to guide how I counsel my clients. Unlike Freud, Adler stresses choice and responsibility, meaning in life and the striving for success, completion and perfection (Corey, 2013,